DVOJEZIČNOST I RAZVOJ: PSIHOLOŠKI PRISTUP

  • Lajos Göncz
Кључне речи: dvojezičnost, psihički razvoj, nepoželjni i poželjni uticaji dvojezičnosti

Сажетак

Istraživanja o odnosu dvojezičnosti i psihičkog razvoja mogu se klasifikovati na različite načine. Ovaj prikaz je usmeren na dve grupe pitanja: prvo, na empirijske dokaze da je dvojezičnost pov- ezana sa mnogim aspektima psihičkog razvoja, i drugo: na holistička i parcijalna objašnjenja uti- caja dvojezičnosti na razvoj ličnosti uopšte ili na neke aspekte razvoja. U vezi sa prvom grupom pitanja, u radu je naglasak stavljen na novije dokaze o povezanosti dvojezičnosti sa egzekutivnim funkcijama i procesima memorije. Holistička objašnjenja najčešće polaze od razlikovanja aditivne  i subtraktivne dvojezične situacije i kao njen rezultat pretpostavljaju širok spektar promena u ličnosti. Za objašnjenje ove povezanosti korišćeni su pojmovi psihologije učenja (posebno pojmovi klasičnog i instrumentalnog uslovljavanja) i motivacije. Parcijalna objašnjenja mogu se naći u pojmovima kao što su polujezičnost nasuprot površinskoj i kognitivnoj jezičkoj kompetenciji i u hipotezama kao što su: međuzavisnost jezičkih kompetencija kod dvojezičnih osoba i Kaminsova (Cummins) hipoteza praga. Zaključeno je da su saznanja u vezi sa dvojezičnim razvojem i funk- cionisanjem bogat izvor da se podrobnije rasvetle određena pitanja psihičkog razvoja uopšte. Buduća istraživanja trebala bi da se posebno posvete rasvetljavanju mehanizama koji omogućavaju da se zaustavi zamena jezika (pitanje je od posebnog značaja zbog ubrzanog nestajanja jezičke raznolikosti), istraživanjima efikasnijih metoda za podučavanje jezika, kao i odnosa dvojezičnosti i starenja, dvojezičnosti i emocija i dvojezičnosti i autobiografske memorije.

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10. 12. 2015.
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