KAKO SE SKLADIŠTE REČI DVAJU JEZIKA U DVOJEZIČNOM UMU?

  • Judit Navracsics
Кључне речи: višejezično skladištenje, obrada, pristup leksičkim informacijama, prepoznavanje reči

Сажетак

Kako dvojezične osobe skladište jezičke informacije u umu pitanje je koje je u fokusu istraživanja dvojezičnosti proteklih trideset godina. Brojna istraživanja imala su za cilj da daju odgovor na pitanje da li se jezici skladište zajedno ili odvojeno. Na osnovu podataka iz jezičkog razvoja bilingvalne dece, prvo je vladao stav da se oni skladište zajedno, da bi se u kasnijim istraživanjima dokazala hipoteza o odvojenom skladištenju. Psiholingvistički podaci dobijeni od odraslih dvojezičnih ispitanika ukazali su na složenost ovog istraživačkog pitanja, na koji ni danas nemamo konačan odgovor. Međutim, otkriveno je da postoje faktori koji utiču na način skladištenja informacija u višejezičnom umu, kao što su starost, nivo jezičkog znanja i način usvajanja jezika. Najnovije metode neurooslikavanja u proučavanju višejezičnog mozga omogućavaju nam da vidimo šta se dešava u mozgu tokom obrade višejezičnog govora. I dalje nema konačnog odgovora u vezi sa višejezičnim skladištenjem, jer iako je dokazano da navedeni faktori zaista igraju važnu ulogu u skladištenju jezika, i dalje ne znamo koji je od njih primaran. Najnovija istraživanja (mapiranje moždanih funkcija) dokazuju da su pojmovi rašireni po celom mozgu, u obe hemisfere. Reči se aktiviraju u različitim delovima mozga, u zavisnosti od značenja, npr. kada govornik engleskog jezika čuje reč top aktiviraće se regije mozga u kojima se skladište reči vezane za brojeve, odeću ili zgrade jer van konteksta ova reč može imati značenje koje je vezano za bilo koju od ove tri grupe reči. I mada je mapa mozga svakog pojedinca drugačija, različiti ljudi imaju iste pojmove u istim područjima, bez obzira na to koje jezike govore. Ukoliko je ovo tačno, pitanje da li dvojezične osobe skladište jezike u umu zajedno ili odvojeno više nije relevantno.

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